Lets look at the camera.
1. Shutter Button. On most digital DSLR cameras the shutter button has two distinct functions. Press the shutter button all the way to take a picture. The shutter button when pressed activates the shutter allowing for light to reach the sensor. By pressing and holding the button half way down you will activate the cameras auto focus, it may take a couple seconds for the camera to auto focus depending on the lens, when it has focused the red dots in the view finder will flash red indicating which areas are in focus ( and beep, most people turn off the sound in the options ). If the lens has been set to manual focus holding the shutter button half way down will not focus the lens, instead you will need to manualy use the lenses focus ring. However if you hold the shutter button half way down and manualy focus the dots will flash red when that area is in focus.
2. The Mode Dial. The shooting modes will most likely be found on a dial labelled with ‘auto, Av, Tv, P, M’ and maybe more. Selecting a shooting mode will determine how your camera behaves when you press the shutter, for example, when ‘auto’ is selected, the camera will determine everything to do with the exposure, including the aperture and shutter speed. (explained in more detail later)
3. Pop-Up Flash. This will trigger automaticaly when working with the semi or fully automatic modes. DSLRs have pop-up flashes that can be controlled in various ways to be in-sync with the shutter or drag behind the shutter; in addition the intensity can be manipulated in accordance to the overall light of the scene. DSLR cameras allow for more pleasing and artistic use of the flash
4. The Lens. A lens is an optical component made out of glass, high quality plastic, or ceramic, which captures the light and assembles it on a point of focus at the matte screen passing through a condensing lens inside the camera. On a digital DSLR lenses are interchangeable which is what makes it so versatile. Interchangeable lenses allow you to have much more control of your images, and to be far more creative than you can be with a point-and-shoot camera. All in all, DSLR cameras produce a more professional photograph.
5. Aperture. The aperture is made up of blades which open and close on the lens. Simply put, aperture is a hole within a lens, through which light travels into the camera body. In photography, aperture is expressed in f-numbers (for example f/5.6). These f-numbers that are known as “f-stops” are a way of describing the size of the aperture, or how open or closed the aperture is. A smaller f-stop means a larger aperture, while a larger f-stop means a smaller aperture. Most people find this awkward, since we are used to having larger numbers represent larger values, but not in this case. For example, f/1.4 is larger than f/2.0 and much larger than f/8.0.
6. Lens Release. Press the Lens Release button to remove the lens from the camera. If you look on the camera there should be a red dot near the top of the lens mount, on the lens there will be an identical red dot which are used to line up the lens for mounting on the camera body. Try and change lens as quickly as possible as you want to limit the amount of dust etc.. that may enter the camera body and dirty the sensor.
The Mode Dial, in detail.
Aperture Priority (Av or A)
Aperture priority can be thought of as a ‘semi-automatic’ shooting mode. When this is selected, you as the photographer set the aperture and the camera will automatically select the shutter speed.
Shutter Priority (Tv or S)
Similarly to aperture priority, this is another ‘semi-automatic’ shooting mode, though in this instance, you set the shutter speed and the camera will take care of the aperture. The shutter speed is measured in seconds (or more often fractions of a second), this is the amount of time the shutter stays open when taking a photograph. The longer the shutter stays open, the more light passes through to the sensor to be captured.
Program mode is almost a halfway house between the semi automatic modes of aperture/shutter priority and full manual control. In program mode, you are able to set either the aperture or shutter speed, and the camera will maintain the correct exposure by adjusting the other one accordingly, i.e. as you change the aperture, the shutter speed will automatically change, and vice versa. This gives you additional freedom that using either aperture priority or shutter priority cannot give without switching between shooting modes.
Manual mode is exactly what it sounds like, you are given full control over the exposure determination, setting both the aperture and shutter speed yourself. There will be an exposure indicator either within the viewfinder or on the screen that will tell you how under/over exposed the image will be, however, you are left to change the shutter speed and aperture yourself to ensure you achieve the correct exposure.
7. The Viewfinder. This is where you look to see what the lens on the camera sees, The image is reflected by mirrors and will have a digital overlay like the one below. The small squares are the focus points (which we talked about earlier), at the bottom of the view finder you will see the shutter speed, aperture, an exposure meter and the ISO. (some cameras will have more information)
8. Hot Shoe. This is where you can attach an external flash or other accessories.
9. White Balance. This button will change depending on the camera. When pressed it will bring up the white balance options, this will be discussed later.
10. Digital Screen. This is where you will navigate menus and it will also work when the Live View button is pressed as a digital view finder. The Live View button is the one with the picture of a camera and a red dot beside it.
11. Memory Card Slot. This is where you will insert and remove the memory card for the camera.
12. Battery Slot. This is where you will insert and remove the battery for the camera.
How the camera works.
The camera works by allowing light to enter through the lens, the amount of light let through is determined by the aperture. The light then hits the mirror which redirects it into the viewfinder allowing us to view the image. Finaly when the shutter button is pressed the shutter will open for a pre-determined amount of time (the shutter is also commonly the mirror) when the shutter is open the light will fall directly onto the sensor in the camera.
Since the dawn of photography, cameras have captured and stored images on glass plates or on film. Today, digital cameras capture the images on a nifty piece of technology – the image sensor. The image sensor is made up of millions of light sensitive photodiodes set on a grid, where each photodiode records a tiny portion of the image as a numeric value that corresponds to a specific brightness level, which is then used to create your image. Image sensors, whether they are CCD or CMOS, vary from camera to camera but they’re basically the same, and the megapixel count shouldn’t be a priority in the decision-making process when buying a camera. Why? Because the size of the sensor is actually more important that the number of megapixels.
more indepth video,
Lets look at lenses.
A primary characteristic of a lens is the focal length. A lens’ focal length is defined as the distance between the lens’ optical center and the camera’s image sensor (or film plane) when focused at infinity. To understand this definition of focal length, we need to define “optical center” as well. A lens’ optical center is the point (usually though not always) within a lens, at which the rays of light from two different sources entering the lens are assumed to cross. Shorter focal length lenses provide a wider field of view, but offer less magnification. Conversely, longer focal lengths offer a shorter field of view, but provide greater magnification.
Front of the lens.
When you look upon the front end of your lens barrel, you’ll see the focal range which is use millimeters, second is a ratio number (1:2.8, 1:2.8-4, 1:3.5-5.6, etc), which is the maximum aperture of the lens. The aperture determines how much light the lens transmits to the image sensor. The lower the maximum aperture value will indicate the quality of the lens in terms of brightness. The final piece of information is the lens ring size this is the actual diameter of the lens and is used when buying filters so you know what size to buy.
A prime lens is an optic that only offers one focal length, such as 35mm or 50mm, as opposed to a zoom lens that can offer a range of focal lengths. Although prime lenses are often viewed as less flexible than zoom lenses, their optical quality is usually higher as they only need to be optimised for one particular focal length. Furthermore, prime lenses usually offer wider maximum apertures than zoom lenses with a similar focal lengths, making them ideal for low-light shooting and attaining shallow depth of field in images.
A zoom lens offers a range of focal lengths between (and including) the two in its specific title. A 24-70mm lens, for example, can be set to 24mm, 70mm and all focal lengths in between, such as 35mm and 50mm. This allows you to quickly and easily vary your composition without needing to reposition yourself. The numbers after the focal length in a lens title refer to the maximum aperture at each end of the lens. So, an 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 lens offers a maximum aperture of f/3.5 at the 18mm end and f/5.6 at the 55mm end. Zoom lenses whose names only refer to one aperture – such as 24-70mm f/2.8 – have this maximum aperture throughout the entire focal range. These are desirable but usually more expensive than those with a variable maximum aperture.
These days the lens that is offered as a package with the DSLR is generally called the ‘kit lens’. It is generally an entry level quality zoom lens. They are usually a fairly general purpose lens designed for everyday shooting. They are normaly set at a stanard focal length.
What is a telephoto lens?
Telephoto lenses (100mm - 800mm) can provide you with a narrow field of view. These long lenses enable you to compress a distance (and compress the sense of depth, as well) and pick out specific objects from far off. They have a strong resolving power and an inherent shallow DOF, where the slightest lateral moment can take a subject out of view. Telephoto lenses are great for wildlife, portrait, sports, and documentary types of photography. They enable you to capture subjects from hundreds of feet away.
Keep in mind that if you buy one with a long focal lengththat the longer your focal length the more impact that camera shake has on your images. More and more lenses these days are being released with Image Stabilisation (IS) to combat camera shake.
What is a Standard lens?
The standard lens has a fixed focal length (50mm, 85mm, 100mm), and reproduces fairly accurately what the human eye sees – in terms of perspective and angle of view. For a 35mm film camera or a full-frame DSLR, the 50mm lens is considered standard. At higher focal lengths (85mm or 100mm) you have an ideal lens for portraiture, because when coupled with a wide aperture they thoroughly soften any background detail, thus making it less likely to distract from the main subject.
What is a wide angle lens?
As their name suggests, these lenses enable their users to take shots with a very wide perspective. They are useful for landscapes and for getting in nice and close to subjects still fitting a lot of them in.
A wide-angle has a shorter focal length (10 thru 42mm) when compared to a standard lens. This enables you to capture a comparatively wider angle of view. A wide-angle lens is a natural choice for capturing outdoor landscapes and group portraits. In fact, wide angle can be the only way to capture the complete setting without omitting any important elements in the image. In this manner, you can use wide-angle lenses to capture a deep DOF.
At the extreme end of the ‘wide angle’ range are ‘fisheye lenses’ which purposely distort your image in a curved way to get more into the shot. Again this is a style of photography that many love but is an art to get right.
What is a macro lens? (close-up)
Macro lenses are used for close-up or “macro” photography. They range in focal lengths of between 50-200mm. These lenses obtain razor-sharp focus for subjects within the macro focus distance, but lose their ability for sharp focus at other distances. These lenses enable the photographer to obtain life-size or larger images of subjects like wasps, butterflies, and flowers.
Many lenses and cameras come with a ‘macro’ setting but true macro lenses will produce images that are life size and that enable you to get in incredibly close from the subject you’re shooting.
more indepth videos,
The Nifty Fifty
more lens stuff,
What is Exposure
When we talk about “exposure,” we simply mean the brightness or darkness of a photo. It seems simple enough to take a photo that is correctly exposed (has the proper brightness or darkness), but in reality, it can be quite tricky. Exposure uses Aperture, Shutter speed, and ISO in conjunction to create a properly exposed image.
How do you define overexposure and underexposure. Overexposure is when the information in the highlights is effectively unreadable. When there is this type of excessive loss of image information there is no way to “retrieve” that missing information in the digital dark room. Underexposure is pretty much the same concept; except in this case there is no image information contained within the shadows. This non-existant information cannot be retrieved through post processing either. In digital photography, once that image information is gone, there’s no way to retrieve it. However we can increase or chances of maintaing that information by shooting in RAW instead of Jpeg. ( discuss this in detail later )
The Exposure Triangle.
It’s important to note that aperture, shutter speed and ISO are all part of the ‘exposure triangle’. They all control either the amount of light entering the camera (aperture, shutter speed) or the amount of light required by the camera (ISO) for a given exposure.
ISO ratings determine the image sensor’s sensitivity to light, each value of the rating represents a “stop” of light, and each incremental ISO number (up or down) represents a doubling or halving of the sensor’s sensitivity to light.
The Aperture controls the lens’ diaphragm, which controls the amount of light traveling through the lens to the film plane. The aperture setting is indicated by the f-number, whereas each f-number represents a “stop” of light.
The Shutter Speed indicates the speed in which the curtain opens then closes, and each shutter speed value also represents a “stop” of light. The shutter speed is measured in fractions of a second.
When these three elements are combined, they represent a given exposure value (EV) for a given setting. Any change in any one of the three elements will have a measurable and specific impact on how the remaining two elements react to expose the film frame or image sensor and how the image ultimately looks. For example, if you increase the f-stop, you decrease the size of the lens’ diaphragm thus reducing the amount of light hitting the image sensor, but also increasing the DOF (depth of field) in the final image. Reducing the shutter speed affects how motion is captured, in that this can cause the background or subject to become blurry. However, reducing shutter speed (keeping the shutter open longer) also increases the amount of light hitting the image sensor, so everything is brighter. Increasing the ISO, allows for shooting in lower light situations, but you increase the amount of digital noise inherent in the photo. It is impossible to make an independent change in one of the elements and not obtain an opposite effect in how the other elements affect the image, and ultimately change the EV.
Lets take these elements one at a time in more detail...
ISO is actually an acronym, which stands for International Standards Organization. The ISO rating, which ranges in value from 25 to 3200 (or beyond), indicates the specific light sensitivity. The lower the ISO rating, the less sensitive the image sensor is and therefore the smoother the image, because there is less digital noise in the image. The higher the ISO rating (more sensitive) the stronger the image sensor has to work to establish an effective image, which thereby produces more digital noise (those multi-colored speckles in the shadows and in the midtones). So what is digital noise? It is any light signal that does not originate from the subject, and therefore creates random color in an image. The digital camera engineers have designed the image sensor to perform best at the lowest ISO (just like with film). On most digital cameras this is ISO 100, although some high end DSLRs have a mode that brings the ISO down to 50 or even 25.
A lens’s aperture is the opening in the diaphragm that determines the amount of focused light passing through the lens. At a small f-stop, say f/2, a tremendous amount of light passes through, even at a fraction of a second; but at f/22, when the diaphragm is perhaps at its smallest, only a tiny amount of light is let in (even at longer shutter speeds). An interesting thing about the aperture and the f-numbers is that it doesn’t matter the focal length of the lens as long as the f-number is held constant. This is because the arithmetical equation that determines the f-number indicates that the same amount of light passes through the lens on a 35mm lens as on a 100mm lens, with a shutter speed of 1/125s. The size of the diaphragm is unquestionably different, but the amount of light passing through is the same.
The aperture range identifies the widest to smallest range of lens openings, i.e. f/2 to f/22, with incremental “stops” in between (f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11 and f/16). Each f-number represents one “stop” of light, a stop is a mathematical equation (which is the focal length of the lens divided by the diameter of the aperture opening) that determines how much light that enters the lens regardless of the length of the lens. Such that an f/4 on a 50mm has smaller opening than an f/4 on a 200mm, but an equivalent amount of light travels through both lenses to reach the image sensor thus providing the same exposure. Each movement up the range (say f/2 to f.2.8) reduces the amount of light by one-half and each movement down the range (say f/11 to f/8) doubles the amount of light passing through the lens. It’s important to understand this concept and how it affects exposure because it works in tandem with the shutter speed (we’ll discuss this in another section) to establish a given exposure value. Basically, when you change the aperture size one stop, you have to shift the shutter speed one stop in the opposite direction to maintain a consistent exposure… and this change in aperture alters the depth of field (DOF) accordingly.
Aperture & Depth of Field
Depth of Field (DOF) is the front-to-back zone of a photograph in which the image is razor sharp. As soon as an object (person, thing) falls out of this range, it begins to lose focus at an accelerating degree the farther out of the zone it falls; e.g. closer to the lens or deeper into the background. With any DOF zone, there is a Point of Optimum focus in which the object is most sharp. There are two ways to describe the qualities of depth of field - shallow DOF or deep DOF. Shallow is when the included focus range is very narrow, a few inches to several feet. Deep is when the included range is a couple of yards to infinity. In both cases DOF is measured in front of the focus point and behind the focus point. DOF is determined by three factors – aperture size, distance from the lens, and the focal length of the lens.
Manipulating the aperture is the easiest and most often utilized means to adjust Depth of Field. To achieve a deep, rich and expansive DOF, you’ll want to set the f-stop to around f/11 or higher. Let’s take a look at these two photos as examples. The photo on the left has an expansive DOF, most likely shot with an f/22 aperture. The photo on the right has an extremely shallow DOF, probably an f/2.8 aperture setting.
Shutter speed is measured in seconds and fractions of a second. It indicates how fast the shutter open and closes. The shutter speed controls how long light enters the lens and hits the image sensor. The shutter speed enables you to capture the world in split seconds, but it can also absorb the world at speeds upwards of three and four seconds (or remain continually open up until the photographer wants to close the curtain). Snapping the shutter in a fraction of a second, also gives you control on how motion is recorded. If the shutter speed is faster than the object or background, then the image will be tack sharp. If the shutter speed is slower, then you’ll get blurred objects. Think about the rain in a rainstorm, how fast is that water falling? Well, at 1/30th the raindrops are streaks of undistinguishable white. But at 1/250th, the raindrops hover in mid air and you can see the full swell of each water drop.
Image File Formats
File compression can be achieved in basically two ways: lossless and lossy. A lossless compression algorithm does not discard any information from the file. Moreover, it looks for efficient ways to represent an image without compromising on its original quality. On the other hand, a lossy compression algorithm reduces the file size by compromising to a certain extent on the image quality.
JPEG. (which stands for Joint Photographic Expert Group) is the most popular form of storing digital images. When you shoot using JPEG you get more photos on your memory card, and it’s faster (in terms of saving the image to the camera and in photo manipulation later). However, JPEG is perhaps the worst of the three, because the compression algorithm used to save the image disregards far too much image information that cannot be reconstructed during decompression. JPEG usually achieves a 10:1 to 20:1 compression with little perceptible loss of image quality. You can adjust the amount of compression, so you can control the image quality and the file size. JPEG compression discards so much information that it is much more difficult to effectively post process your image (i.e. correcting color, sharpness and increasing the size of the image).
TIFF. (which stands for Tagged Image File Format) is considered the standard photographic file format, because it is a highly flexible format that uses a lossless compression algorithm, so there’s no image degradation during compression. This ability to store image information in a lossless format makes a TIFF file very useful for archiving images. Unlike a JPEG, a TIFF file may be edited and re-saved without losing any image quality. In addition, when using a third party image processor like Adobe’s Photoshop, you retain access to the individual layers of an edited and saved image, so you can revisit them in the future. There are two types of TIFF configurations – 16-bit and 8-bit; 16-bit provides you with more information to manipulate the final image in the digital darkroom (i.e. color saturation changes, color balance changes, brightness & contrast changes, etc.), and 8-bit (best for archiving and printing), which retains all the “work” you’ve done on the photo (the layers), but saves to a relatively smaller size. In general, TIFF files can be quite large… easily ranging up to 48MB per image. But this added file size allows for very large blow-ups with no digital artifacts in the print. The one downside of TIFF is that the majority of cameras do not shoot in a dedicated TIFF file format.
RAW. is basically just that – the raw, unprocessed, naked image. Think of it as the digital negative, because it performs the same function as negatives do in film photography. Just like with film negatives, RAW files need to be “processed” into a viewable format (usually TIFF or JPEG). Also, RAW files – like film negatives – have a wide dynamic range. So what’s the point of shooting RAW? You shoot RAW if you expect to do a good amount post processing work in your digital darkroom. Let’s say you shot indoors under tungsten lights, but you forgot to change the camera’s white balance from daylight. If you save the image as a JPEG, you’ll be junking most of the color information and you’ll end up with that red/yellow image (that we’ve all cringed at). With a JPEG you can’t get that lost information back, manipulating the image would be difficult, and you still might not get a pleasing image. However, as a RAW file, all the color data is still available, and you can recover the image; correct the white balance and… voila, a much more appealing photograph.
As the name suggests, white balance balances the color temperature in your image. How does it do this? It adds the opposite color to the image in an attempt to bring the color temperature back to neutral. Instead of whites appearing red or yellow, they should appear white after correctly white balancing an image.
To understand the concept of White Balance, you need to first understand the concept of color temperature. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light. It provides a method of describing these characteristics and is measured in Kelvin (K). A light having higher color temperature will have more blue light or larger Kelvin value as compared to lower light, which has a smaller Kelvin value.
You must have noticed some photos turn out with an orange/yellow cast if shot under tungsten lighting or a bluish cast if shot under fluorescent lights. This occurs because each source of light possesses a different color temperature. A digital camera can measure the colors in the red, green, and blue light of the spectrum, as reflected to its sensors. In a photo taken under the midday sun there is the whole spectrum of light (which makes up “white” sunlight). Under these conditions, the colors in an image appear nearest to the “true” colors. An image taken under tungsten bulb (a normal household incandescent bulb) without adjusting the digital camera for white balance produces the dull orange shade as it spreads the biased light. Similarly, an image taken under the fluorescent lighting produces a brighter bluish cast. However, it is possible to shift the color in the desirable direction, provided you have a good understanding of your digital camera and its settings.
Since different sources of light have different color hues, a picture taken with a normal white balance under artificial lighting conditions transmits the low heat to the camera’s sensor. This light touches the red bits of the spectrum, which results into dull yellow or orange shades in the picture. Though the human eyes can automatically adjust to different lights and color temperatures to sense right color, a camera needs to be adjusted to different lights for accurate color reproduction. By adjusting the white balance setting of your digital camera, you can alter the required light or temperature to produce the most accurate colors in a digital image.
more indepth video,
Extreme Long Shot (aka Extreme Wide Shot) Used to show the subject from a distance, or the area in which the scene is taking place. This type of shot is particularly useful for establishing a scene (see Establishing Shot later in the article) in terms of time and place, as well as a character’s physical or emotional relationship to the environment and elements within it. The character doesn’t necessarily have to be viewable in this shot.
Long Shot (aka Wide Shot) Shows the subject from top to bottom; for a person, this would be head to toes, though not necessarily filling the frame. The character becomes more of a focus than an Extreme Long Shot, but the shot tends to still be dominated by the scenery. This shot often sets the scene and our character’s place in it. This can also serve as an Establishing Shot, in lieu of an Extreme Long Shot.
Full Shot Frames character from head to toes, with the subject roughly filling the frame. The emphasis tends to be more on action and movement rather than a character’s emotional state.
Medium Long Shot (aka 3/4 Shot) Intermediate between Full Shot and Medium Shot. Shows subject from the knees up.
Cowboy Shot (aka American Shot) A variation of a Medium Shot, this gets its name from Western films from the 1930s and 1940s, which would frame the subject from mid-thighs up to fit the character’s gun holsters into the shot.
Medium Shot Shows part of the subject in more detail. For a person, a medium shot typically frames them from about waist up. This is one of the most common shots seen in films, as it focuses on a character (or characters) in a scene while still showing some environment.
Medium Close-Up Falls between a Medium Shot and a Close-Up, generally framing the subject from chest or shoulder up.
Close-Up Fills the screen with part of the subject, such as a person’s head/face. Framed this tightly, the emotions and reaction of a character dominate the scene.
Choker A variant of a Close-Up, this shot frames the subject’s face from above the eyebrows to below the mouth
Extreme Close Up Emphasizes a small area or detail of the subject, such as the eye(s) or mouth. An Extreme Close Up of just the eyes is sometimes called an Italian Shot, getting its name from Sergio Leone’s Italian-Western films that popularized it.
Rule of Thirds
Imagine that your image is divided into 9 equal segments by 2 vertical and 2 horizontal lines. The rule of thirds says that you should position the most important elements in your scene along these lines, or at the points where they intersect.
Doing so will add balance and interest to your photo. Some cameras even offer an option to superimpose a rule of thirds grid over the LCD screen, making it even easier to use.
Placing your main subject off-centre, as with the rule of thirds, creates a more interesting photo, but it can leave a void in the scene which can make it feel empty. You should balance the "weight" of your subject by including another object of lesser importance to fill the space.
Symmetry and Patterns
We are surrounded by symmetry and patterns, both natural and man-made., They can make for very eye-catching compositions, particularly in situations where they are not expected. Another great way to use them is to break the symmetry or pattern in some way, introducing tension and a focal point to the scene.
When we look at a photo our eye is naturally drawn along lines. By thinking about how you place lines in your composition, you can affect the way we view the image, pulling us into the picture, towards the subject, or on a journey "through" the scene. There are many different types of line - straight, diagonal, curvy, zigzag, radial etc - and each can be used to enhance our photo's composition.
Before photographing your subject, take time to think about where you will shoot it from. Our viewpoint has a massive impact on the composition of our photo, and as a result it can greatly affect the message that the shot conveys. Rather than just shooting from eye level, consider photographing from high above, down at ground level, from the side, from the back, from a long way away, from very close up, and so on.
Because photography is a two-dimensional medium, we have to choose our composition carefully to conveys the sense of depth that was present in the actual scene. You can create depth in a photo by including objects in the foreground, middle ground and background. Another useful composition technique is overlapping, where you deliberately partially obscure one object with another. The human eye naturally recognises these layers and mentally separates them out, creating an image with more depth.
The world is full of objects which make perfect natural frames, such as trees, archways and holes. By placing these around the edge of the composition you help to isolate the main subject from the outside world. The result is a more focused image which draws your eye naturally to the main point of interest.
Steve McCurry check out his work......
note to self, talk about dutch angle and how angle effect the context examples in class. How framing effects pysic.
distance far-too close
low angle - power
back of head - power or lack of
dutch - uneasy
profile - ?